Warsaw, the capital of Poland, once had a Jewish population equivalent to the number of Jews living in all of France. It was the only city that rivaled New York’s Jewish population. The city's Jewish population was decimated during the Holocaust. Today only fragments remain.

Early History
Religious, Social & Political Life
Jewish Press
World War I & Inter-War Period
The Holocaust
Deportations
Ghetto Uprising
Post-War Warsaw
Present-Day Community
Jewish Tourist Sites

Early History

Jews settled in Warsaw during the 14th century, after the reign of King Kasimierz. Even at this early stage, non-Jewish townsman felt hostility toward the Jews. In 1483, Jewish inhabitants were expelled from Warsaw. From 1527-1768, Jews were officially banned from the city; consequently, Jewish settlers lived in jurydykas (privately owned settlements) on the outskirts of the city.

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Some Jews were allowed to enter the city for short periods of time. After 1572, Jews were allowed to enter Warsaw during conventions of the National Sejm (parliament). Jewish representatives in the Council of Lands were also permitted to visit Warsaw. According to a census in 1765, 2,519 Jews lived in Warsaw. This number increased after Jews were officially allowed to live in the city in 1768. By 1792, the Jewish population nearly tripled to 6,750. A Jewish bourgeoisie began to form in Poland, consisting mainly of businessman, taverners, and artisans. Jewish entrepreneurs also emerged, acting as moneylenders and army suppliers.

Jews were not allowed to have an authorized Jewish community until the Prussian conquest; however, those living in the city still ran prayer meetings, charitable associations and appointed Jewish leaders to take care of tax collection and other judicial services.

Following the first partition of Poland in 1772, a rise in organized street fights against the Jews took place. Three years later, there was a partial expulsion of Jews from Warsaw.

Many Jews in Warsaw participated in the Polish uprising against the Russians during the partition period and were killed when Russian troops massacred the Jewish civilian population.

In 1796, Warsaw became part of Prussia and Jews were subject to Juden Reglements, which only allowed Jews living in Warsaw prior to 1796 to remain in the city. By 1804, 11,630 Jews lived in Warsaw. Jews were subject to attacks by the Polish population in 1805.


In the late 18th century, Hasidism spread to Warsaw. On the other hand, the Haskalah, Jewish enlightenment, was not as strong. The followers of the Enlightenment Movement (maskilim), led by Isaac Flatau, formed their own synagogue, called the German Synagogue, in 1802.

In 1809, a Jewish quarter was established in the city. Only Jewish bankers, merchants, manufacturers, army suppliers, and doctors were allowed to live there, if they agreed to wear European style clothing and send their children to general schools.

In 1826, a government-sponsored Rabbinical assembly opened; it closed in 1863 during the Polish uprisings.

The population of Warsaw continued to grow in the19th and 20th century. In 1816, Jews numbered 15, 600 and, by 1910, the population reached 337,000 (38% of the total population of Warsaw). This rise was due to mass migration in the 1860's and another set of migrations after the 1881 pogroms in Russia, after which 150,000 Jews moved to Warsaw. Many Jews came from Lithuania, Belorussia and the Ukraine.

In the early 1800's, life in the "Jewish Quarter" was restricted, but improved in the 1860's. Jews participated in the Polish uprisings against the Russians in the 1860's. Also during this period, Jews continued to play an important role in banking. Jewish bankers also had monopolies in the sale of salt and alcoholic beverages. Jews consisted of more than half of all those involved in commerce in the city and were also involved in the crafts.


Religious, Social & Political Life

During the late 1800's, Hasidism further spread throughout Warsaw. Nearly two-thirds of Warsaw’s 300 approved synagogues were Hasidic. On the other hand, the rise of the Mitnaggdim also grew with the arrival of the Litvaks. Warsaw’s Jewish leadership, until the end of the 1860's, was mainly Orthodox. Four rabbis served all of Warsaw and they removed from office all the Mitnaggdim, whom did not find favor in the eyes of the Hasidic Jews.

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Jewish education in this period was run by Orthodox groups in the form of the heder, small classes often located in the house of the rabbi. By the mid-19th century, nearly 90% of all Jewish children attended heder. In 1896, 433 authorized hederim existed in Warsaw, as well as a number of unauthorized ones.

In this period, assimilationist philosophy became popular among the youth. Many Jews converted to Christianity and Warsaw had the highest conversion rate in Eastern Europe.


From the late 18th century, the Jewish community in Praga was centered around Szeroka and Petersburska streets (now Jagiellonska and Klopotowska). A round, masonry synagogue was built in the neighborhood by architect Józef Lessel in 1836. It was one of only six circular buildings in all of Europe, and the most important meeting place for Jews in Praga before World War II.. The synagogue was used as a delousing center during the Nazi occupation. After the war, the building housed offices of the Central Jewish Committee in Poland. In 1961, the building was demolished over Jewish protest, though it was still in good condition. Since 1991, the site has been used for a public high school.

The largest and most beautiful synagogue in Warsaw was the Great Synagogue in Tlomackie Square. This was the only place offering a Reform service, and it was used by the wealthy and middle class, as well as the intelligentsia. Unlike the Nozyk Synagogue where Yiddish was spoken, Polish was used in the Great Synagogue. The synagogue, designed by Leandro Marconi (who came from a family of architects, one of whom had designed the Pawiak prison later used in the Warsaw Ghetto), held 2,400 people and had a large hall, meeting rooms, an archive, a library, and a school. It was completed in 1878. The Main Judaic library was erected next to the Great Synagogue in 1936. Construction was funded by donations of the Jewish population, and State and municipal subsidies. Its designer was the architect Edward Eber.

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Most of Warsaw's synagogues were small, often private, prayer houses located in the courtyards or backyards of tenements. One such synagogue was discovered in one of the oldest houses in Praga-Warsaw. Built in 1811 at what is now 50/52 Targowa Street, the building was turned into a warehouse after World War II. Inside fragments of wall paintings depicting the Western Wall, Rachel's Tomb, and signs of the Zodiac remain. A Hebrew inscription says the paintings were financed by donations in 1934.

Zionist groups flourished in Warsaw in the late 1800's. Chapters of Hovevei Zion and the Society Menuha ve Nahalah opened. Hovevei Zion opened its own modern heder in Warsaw in 1885.

The Bund, Jewish socialists, also promoted their ideologies. The Bund was popular among Jewish workers and helped promote Yiddish culture. The Bund was ardently opposed to Zionism and the revival of Hebrew.

Jewish Press

Yiddish and Polish weeklies emerged in the 1820's and the Hebrew Press began later in the 1880's. Warsaw became the center of Hebrew publishing in Poland and many famous writers either lived or worked in the city, including: Isaac Bashevis Singer, Shalom Asch, I.L. Peretz, David Frischman and Nachum Sokolow.


World War I & Inter-War Period

During World War I, thousands of refugees came to Warsaw. By 1917, there were 343,000 Jews living in Warsaw, about 41% of the total population. In this period, the Jewish population increased, while the percentage of Jews living in Warsaw, compared to non-Jews, decreased to about 30%. Many Jews — about 34% in 1931 — were unemployed.

The main political struggle in Warsaw and in Poland took place between the Zionists parties and the Orthodox -Hasidic groups, which had joined together and formed the Agudat Israel. By 1936, though, the Bund had received the majority of votes to serve on the communal leadership and represent the Jewish community in the Warsaw municipality. The Polish government annulled the election results, however, and appointed a different community (kahal) board, which was used until the beginning of the German occupation.

In the inter-war period, a Jewish school system existed, but most Jews attended state schools. During this period, many Hebrew writers immigrated to Israel; nevertheless, the Yiddish and Polish Jewish press still thrived. By the start of World War II, more than 1,000 Jewish workers were involved in Hebrew printing works in Warsaw.

The Holocaust

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Warsaw’s pre-war Jewish population in 1939 was 393,950 Jews, approximately one-third of the city total. From October 1939 to January 1940, Germans enacted anti-Jewish measures, including forced labor, the wearing of a Jewish star and a prohibition against riding on public transportation.

In April 1940, construction of the ghetto walls began. On Yom Kippur, October 12, 1940, the Nazis announced the building of Jewish residential quarters. Roughly 30% of the city’s population was to be confined to an area that comprised just 2.4% of city lands. Jews from Warsaw and those deported from other places throughout Western Europe were ordered to move into the ghetto, while 113,000 Christians were moved out of the area. The ghetto was divided into two sections, a small ghetto at the south end and a larger one at the north end. German and Polish police guarded its outside entrance and a Jewish militia was formed to police the inside.

The population of the ghetto reached more than half a million people. Unemployment was a major problem in the ghetto. Illegal workshops were created to manufacture goods to be sold illegally on the outside and raw goods were smuggled in. Children became couriers and smugglers.

Hospitals, public soup kitchens, orphanages, refugee centers and recreation facilities were formed, as well as a school system. Some schools were illegal and operated under the guise of a soup kitchen. Still, many Jews died from mass epidemics (such as typhoid) and hunger. The streets were filled with corpses. Jews in the ghetto still had to pay for burial, and if they couldn't afford it, the bodies were left unburied.

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Clandestine prayer groups and yeshivot were also started. Some religious Jews believed that their suffering was preordained and would bring about the Messiah. There were also many religious Jews involved in heroic acts. One famous leader was Janusz Korczak, the director of the Jewish orphanage, who chose to accompany the children he cared for when they were deported.

Deportations

This first mass deportation of 300,000 Jews to Treblinka began in the summer of 1942. The number of deportees averaged about 5,000-7,000 people daily, and reached a high of 13,000. At first, ghetto factory workers, Jewish police, Judenrat members, hospital workers and their families were spared, but they were also periodically subject to deportation. Only 35,000 were allowed to remain in the ghetto at one time. Adam Czerniakow, the head of the Warsaw Judenrat committed suicide on July 23, 1942, to protest the killing of Jewish children.

A second wave of deportations to Treblinka began on January 18, 1943, during which many factory workers and hospital personnel were taken. Unexpected Jewish armed resistance, however, forced the Nazis to retreat from the ghetto after four days of deportations.

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Mordechai Anielewicz


Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Following the armed resistance in January 1943, all social institutions and the Judenrat ceased to function and even walking on the streets became illegal. Mordechai Anielewicz, at the age of 24, became the leader of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB). He recruited more than 750 fighters, but amassed only 9 rifles, 59 pistols and a couple of grenades. A developed network of bunkers and fortifications were formed. The Jewish fighters also received support from the Polish Underground.

On April 19, 1943, the Warsaw Ghetto uprising began when German troops penetrated the ghetto to begin a third round of mass deportations. The ZOB faced a formidable force of 2,000 armed German soldiers, yet the Germans were unable to defeat the Jews in open street combat. After several days, the Germans switched tactics and began burning down houses. The ZOB headquarters on 18 Mila Street fell on May 8, 1943; at this time Mordechai Anielewicz died in battle.

Warsaw polandA Polish partisan fighter from the "Piesc" Battalion of the Armia Krajowa, led by Stanislaw Jankowski "Agaton", on a rooftop overlooking the Ewangelicki cemetery in the Wola district of Warsaw (August 2, 1944).


On May 16, 1943, the ghetto was liquidated and the Germans blew up the Great Synagogue on Tomlacke Street in victory. Sixty thousand Jews died in the ghetto uprising.

Not all Jews were found by the Nazis by May 16 and intermittent fighting lasted until June 1943. About 50 ghetto fighters were saved by the Polish "People’s Guard" and formed their own partisan group, named after Anielewicz. The Warsaw Ghetto uprising empowered Jews throughout Poland and resulted in armed resistance in other ghettos. After the ghetto was liquidated, Jewish leaders continued to work underground on the "Aryan" side by hiding Jews and issuing forged documents. Many Jews became active in the Polish underground of Greater Warsaw.

Post-War Warsaw

In September 1944, Warsaw’s eastern suburb, Praga, was liberated and, in January 1945, the main parts of the city on the left bank were liberated by the Soviets. About 6,000 Jews participated in the battle for the liberation of Warsaw. Two thousand Jewish survivors were found in underground hideouts, when the city was liberated. When the city stadium was built, the bones of approximately 100,000 people were found in a mass grave and reburied in the city cemetery.

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The message reads: "Here was the walls of the Ghetto"

By the end of 1945, 5,000 Jews settled in Warsaw. The population doubled when Jews who survived the war in Russia returned to Warsaw. The city became the seat of the Central Committee of Polish Jews and a number of Jewish cultural institutions were opened in 1949.

Over the next two decades, waves of immigration were stimulated by anti-Semitism and communist persecution. The first large group left for Israel in 1946-47 following the Kielce pogrom. Others left in 1957-58 and 1967-68. By 1968, most Jewish institutions ceased to function.

Present-Day Community

Currently, most of Poland’s Jewish population lives in Warsaw. The Union of Religious Congregations has its main office in Warsaw. There is both a Jewish primary school and a kindergarten. Warsaw also houses the offices of the Main Judaic Library and Museum of Jewish Martyrology. It is the home also of the E.R. Kaminska Jewish Theater, the only regularly functioning Yiddish theater in the world. Most of its actors today are not Jewish. While parts of Europe have seen an upsurge of anti-Semitism, this has not occurred in Poland.

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While Jews living in Warsaw feel their situation today is good, few are in prominent positions. One of the major issues for the community remains the restitution of property taken from Jews during the war.

Israeli President Reuven Rivlin joined Polish officials, Holocaust survivors, and media representatives on October 28, 2014, for the opening of Poland's new "Polin Museum of the History of Polish Jews".  The building was innaugurated last year and the museum cost in total over $100 million.  The museum was built on the grounds where the Warsaw Ghetto stood during the Holocaust.  The visit to the opening of the museum was Israeli President Rivlin's first foreign trip since his election in Summer 2014.  The core exhibit tells the story of the 1,000 year history of Jews in Poland through 8 chronological gallery sections. 

Jewish life in Warsaw is recovering and becoming stronger by the year.  In 2010 three Synagogues existed in Warsaw; today there are six.  The Warsaw Jewish Community's first Jewish Community Center (JCC) was established in 2007.

According to Chabad, for the first time since the Warsaw ghetto was liquidated during World War II – and all its residents killed or deported to death camps – one hundred Diaspora Jewish families from Israel, Europe and the U.S. will celebrate a Passover Seder there on April 19, 2019, along with Chief Rabbi of Chabad-Poland Shalom Ber Stambler and his family. The Seder will be divided into three groups and led in three different languages – Polish, Hebrew and English. Toward the end of the evening, they will merge and conclude the Seder as one.

Jewish Tourist Sites

Not one house in the Warsaw Ghetto survived. Everything was rebuilt after the war, and the area is now a residential neighborhood. Several monuments to the ghetto and uprising are scattered about the area.

The Bunker on 18 Mila Street

More than 100 people died on May 8, when the Nazis surrounded the bunker. Nothing remains from the bunker. It is marked by a commemorative stone engraved in Polish, Yiddish and Hebrew

The Musuem of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw

In April 2013, the Museum of the History of Polish Jewry in Warsaw — built on hallowed ground of the Warsaw Ghetto — opened to visitors interested in learning more about the Jewish community of the city. The museum itself is housed in a structure of green glass and stone, symbolic of transparency, and the main entrance faces a plaza dominated by the Nathan Rapoport memorial, which commemorates the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The museum's design was completed by Finnish architects Rainer Mahlamäki and Ilmari Lahdelma who were chosen from among 200 submissions to Poland’s first international architectural competition. The plot of land for the museum and an additional $13 million were donated by the city of Warsaw to the project.

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Chief Curator of the Warsaw Museum and New York University Professor Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett said that the 1,000-year history of Polish Jews, 3 million of whom were killed during the Holocaust, was an “integral part” of the Poland’s history in general. “Jews are not a footnote to Polish history,” Kirshenblatt-Gimblett said.

Memorial of the Heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto

Between Karmelicka and Zamenhofa streets stands the "Ghetto Heroes Monument". Designed by sculptor Nathan Rappaport. It commemorates all who lost their lives in the Ghetto Uprising led by Mordechai Anielewicz.

Commemorative Gateway.

A commemorative Gateway Monument was built on the site of the ramp, known as Umschlagplatz (collection point), used for railroad transport to Treblinka. Names of 400 Jews are etched on it. The train station began its first actions in the summer of 1942.

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Warsaw Ghetto Walls

Only a small piece remains of the ghetto walls, which were about 11 miles long.

Nozyk Synagogue

The synagogue was founded in 1902, by Zalman Nozyk, a wealthy Jewish merchant. The synagogue was known for its singing and religious music and attracts visitors from around the world. Built by an unknown acrhitect in neo-Roman style with elements of Byzantine and Mauritian ornamentation, the Nozyk is Warsaw’s only surviving synagogue from before the war. During WWII, it was was located in the ghetto. The Germans allowed public worship in autumn 1941, but it was later used as a stable.

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The Warsaw "geniza," a collection of holy scripts from all over Poland was under the synagogue, but it was nearly useless for some time because all the people were gone. At one point, there were more Jewish books in Poland than Jews.

The synagogue was renovated and reconstructed between 1977-83. Today, services are held daily and on major Jewish holidays.

Jewish Historical Institute (ZIH)

In 1993, the Bank Tower was completed on the grounds where the Great Synagogue once stood. Superstitious residents believe the site to have been cursed by the last rabbi. Behind the tower is the Judaic Library building, which suffered major damage during the war, but was restored and handed over to the Jewish Historical Institute in Poland. The building presently houses offices and research rooms, and boasts a large collection of Jewish art, religious objects, and mementos. Its archives contain a large collection of materials and documents relating to Jewish history in Poland, including Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum's Underground Archives. The Institute's library has about 60,000 volumes. The Jewish Historical Institute in Poland is funded by the State and acts under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Institute’s library has more than 60,000 volumes of literature and old manuscripts, from as early as the 10th century.

Cemeteries

The Brodno Jewish Cemetery

Founded in 1799, it is the oldest Jewish cemetery in Warsaw. It was almost completely destroyed in the war. In 1985, renovations took place. One can find a 26-foot sculpture to remember Jewish martyrs.

Okopower St. Jewish Cemetery (Gensha Cemetery)

Dated to the beginning of the 19th century, it is Warsaw’s largest Jewish cemetery with 250,000 people buried in 200,000 graves. Special gravestones exist for the Kohanim (priests). Mass graves for 300 victims of the Nazis can be found, as well as gravestones for those who perished in the Warsaw ghetto and Jewish officers and enlisted men in the Polish army who lost their lives defending Warsaw in 1939. Some of the more famous gravestones include, I.L. Peretz (writer), Meir Balaban (historian), Esther Kaminska (actress) and Dr. Zaminhoff (the creator of Esperanto). There is also a statue commemorating Janusz Korczak. Ordinarily, a Jew who commits suicide is not allowed to be buried in a cemetery, but the family of Adam Czerniakow, the head of the Warsaw Judenrat who killed himself during the war to protest the killing of Jewish children, was given special dispensation for burial in the cemetery.

Источник: www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org

Климат и погода

Местность Варшавы находится в зоне умеренно-континентального климата. Зимы здесь теплые, а лето влажное. Сильные заморозки бывают крайне редко и не превосходят –15 °C. Температура зимой составляет в среднем около +2…+5 °C. В летний период столбик термометра поднимается до +15…+20 °C.

Жара выше +30 °C случается редко и носит кратковременный характер. В целом же для теплых месяцев свойственны безветрие и умеренное количество осадков.

Природа

Варшава расположилась на Мазовецкой низменности, в центральной части Польши, на двух берегах самой крупной реки страны — Вислы, неподалеку от ее впадения в Буг.

В городе зелени: это и парки, и леса, и прекрасные скверы. Сельскохозяйственным угодьям в черте города отведено около 40 % от территории всей Варшавы.

Достопримечательности

У Варшавы богатая история и трудная судьба. Первая мировая война разрушила около 85 % городских построек. Восстановление старого города заняло не один год.

В Варшаве много интересных мест. Филармония, 25 действующих театров, 43 музея, огромное число исторических и культурных памятников — здесь можно потеряться во всем многообразии достопримечательностей. Упомянем основные из них.

Город разделен на две части: старую и новую Варшаву. Между ними находится стена Барбакан, которую возвели для защиты города еще в XIV веке. Центром Старого города является Замковая площадь. Именно на ней возвышается памятник Сигизмунду III, один из старейших монументов Варшавы. Самой известной религиозной достопримечательностью выступает Костел Святого Креста, возведенный в XVI веке.

Неподалеку от центра Варшавы расположился Парк Лазенки. Гуляя по нему, обратите внимание на необычное сооружение — Дворец на воде.

Среди выставочных центров Варшавы выделяется Галерея Зюхента, Арт-галерея, Центр Современного Искусства, Музей Шопена, Варшавский архиепископский музей, а также Королевский замок и Исторический музей.

Питание

Осмотр достопримечательностей можно прекрасно совместить с походом в ресторан. Неподалеку от Музея археологии разместился Arsenal, где подают блюда итальянской кухни. В теплое время года здесь открыта терраса. Для детей в Arsenal оборудована прекрасная игровая площадка, а в меню имеются специальные десерты для детей.

Среди высококлассных заведений Варшавы выделяется ресторан Belwedere, что расположен на территории парка. Его меню состоит в основном из польских блюд. Мясо косули со сливочным соусом, вареники с малиной и говядина с грибами — фирменные рецепты ресторана.

Любители пива могут отправиться в ресторан Browarmia Królewska, в меню которого собраны лучшие сорта польского пива и различные закуски.

Сладкоежкам понравится в кафе Blikle. А ресторан Dom Polski удивит вас своей оранжереей с цветами.

Среди туристов особенно популярно заведение Mleczny Bar Pod Barbakan, где превосходно готовят блюда домашней кухни.

Проживание

Фешенебельные гостиницы Варшавы находятся в Старом городе. Вдоль Королевской дороги можно снять отличный номер в отеле с прекрасным видом на исторические достопримечательности. Кроме того, из этой части города очень удобно совершать поездки.

В Новой части Варшавы отели предстают в современном виде многоэтажек. Жилье здесь, как правило, пользуется спросом у конгресс-туристов.

Экономные туристы найдут удобные варианты вдали от центра города. В подобных отелях цены радуют своей доступность, однако спектр услуг довольно небольшой. У Центрального автовокзала есть кемпинг.

Апартаменты в гостинице экономкласса будут стоить от 57,5 € за сутки, в трехзвездочном отеле — от 146,5 €.

Развлечения и отдых

Для семейного отдыха прекрасно подойдет зоопарк Warsaw Zoo, который находится в самом центре Варшавы. Здесь вы сможете понаблюдать за редкими животными, привезенными из экзотических стран. Для детей проводятся специальные экскурсии, в рамках которых малыши узнают много интересного о животном мире.

Разнообразить свой отдых можно походом в аквапарк Wodny Park, что расположился в пригороде Варшавы. Здесь имеется все для отличного времяпрепровождения: русская баня, аттракционы, оздоровительные кабинеты, горки, бассейны и фитнес-центр. Гордость аквапарка — плавательный бассейн, соответствующий всем олимпийским стандартам. Здесь каждый сможет ощутить себя настоящим олимпийским чемпионом.

Поклонникам гольфа рекомендуем отправиться в клуб Golf Parks Poland,обладающий высококлассными спортивными площадками и отличным магазином спортивного снаряжения. Расслабиться после игры вы сможете в баре.

На рыночной площади вы встретите множество музыкантов и художников.

С наступлением ночи жизнь в Варшаве не затихает. В это время открывают двери все самые модные клубы города. Самое популярное место тусовщиков — Tygmont jazz.

Покупки

В Варшаве можно встретить достаточно много старых магазинов, оставшихся с социалистических времен. Однако их число постепенно снижается — места, навевающие ностальгию, сменяются крупными торговыми сетями с Запада.

Недалеко от кольцевой развязки Rondo Babka недавно открылся крупнейший в Европе пятиэтажный торговый центр «Аркадия». Сувениры и товары ручной работы советуем присмотреть на большом Русском Базаре, что находится на улице Waszyngtona.

Широкий перечень товаров доступен в универмаге Smyk Building. Самый крупный универмаг Польши — Galeria Centrum — вы найдете на улице Marszalkowska. Больше всего магазинов можно повстречать в городском районе Centrum.

Модникам стоит отправиться в центральную часть Варшавы. На улице Powsinska, в торговом центре Sadyba Best, продают дизайнерскую одежду и одежду мировых марок. Также торговый центр оснащен мультиплексом и ресторанами.

Любителям традиционных изделий стоит посетить Старый Город, где есть несколько интересных магазинчиков, например Cepelia. Традиционную керамику продают на улице Ulica Prosta.

В будние дни магазины работают с 10:00 до 19:00, в субботу закрываются рано — в 13:00–16:00. Торговые центры принимают посетителей с 8:00 до 22:00.

Транспорт

Транспортное сообщение в Варшаве отлично развито. По городу курсируют автобусы, трамваи. Кроме того, в Варшаве имеется метро. На каждой остановке есть расписание дневного и ночного транспорта, также отмечается, какой автобус приедет: обычный пассажирский или специализированный, с низким полом — для инвалидов.

Билеты можно приобрести как в специализированных киосках, так и у водителя. При этом разделения на виды транспорта такие документы на проезд не имеют.

Стоимость проезда составляет: 0,6 € при продаже в киоске, при покупке у водителя — 0,8 €, детям до 7 лет — 0,25 €. Можно купить проездной на час, который будет стоить 1 €, на 3 часа — 4 €, на 3 дня — 7,5 €.

Транспорт работает с 5:00 до 23:00. В ночное время раз в час курсируют ночные автобусы, проезд в них в 2 раза дороже, чем днем.

Метро представлено одной веткой. Работает круглосуточно.

Связь

В Варшаве отлично развита городская телефонная сеть. Телефоны-автоматы помогут вам позвонить в любой уголок мира за небольшую плату. Карты для оплаты связи продают в газетных киосках, в туристических центрах, на почте.

Если вы хотите сэкономить, то можете не подключать роуминг, а приобрести сим-карту местного сотового оператора. В телефонном магазине, в газетном киоске, супермаркете или на обычной заправке вы сможете приобрести стартовый пакет польской prepaid сим-карты. К вашим услугам операторы Orange, Play и Heyah.

Также позвонить родным вы сможете в телефонных отделениях Poczta Polska. З Отсюда же можно выйти интернет в любое время суток — в столице есть множество почтовых отделений, работающих без выходных и круглосуточно. Оставаться на связи также можно с помощью многочисленных интернет-кафе и точек доступа Wi-Fi . Выход в интернет также предоставляется во многих отелях.

Безопасность

Помните, что в любом общественном месте нужно внимательно следить за сохранностью своих вещей. Не следует оставлять без присмотра сумки и верхнюю одежду, даже в кафе. Также не стоит брать с собой крупные суммы наличными. В большинстве магазинов можно расплатиться пластиковой картой.

Отправляясь на прогулку, нужно иметь при себе копию паспорта. Остальные важные вещи храните в гостинице.

За курение в не отведенном для этого месте предполагается крупный штраф в размере 30 €.

Недвижимость

Условно жилье в Варшаве можно разделить на группы в зависимости от расположения. Так, большинство современных строений разместились вдоль западного берега Вислы. На восточном берегу вас ждут постройки советского времени. Престижное жилье можно найти в районах Весола, Урсунов и Бялолека.

Снять однокомнатную квартиру на месяц будет стоить в среднем от 120 € до 400 €, двухкомнатная в престижном районе обойдется примерно в 300–500 € в месяц.

Средняя стоимость 1 квадратного метра жилой недвижимости в Варшаве составляет около 1600 €.

Советы туристу

Посещая территорию храма, одевайтесь скромно. В случае если вы одеты ярко и открыто, вас могут не пустить в храм.

В большинстве музеев и других достопримечательностях разрешено проводить фото- и видеосъемку. Вспышка при съемке запрещена. В некоторых местах съемка платная.

Придя на экскурсию, учитывайте, что лекции проводятся на польском языке. Можно заказать экскурсию на другом языке, но делать это стоит заранее.

Официантам принято оставлять чаевые в размере 10 % от суммы. В элитных заведениях, как правило, плату за обслуживание включают в счет.

Если хотите сэкономить на питании, посещайте рестораны «семейного типа». В них всегда приемлемые цены и хорошее меню.

Источник: www.restbee.ru

Landscape

City site

Warsaw lies on the Vistula (Wisła) River, about 240 miles (386 km) southeast of the Baltic coast city of Gdańsk. It is situated in the middle of the Warsaw Plain, a glacier-formed basin that ranges from 250 to 380 feet (76 to 116 metres) above sea level. Divided into right- and left-bank portions by the river, the city extends about 18 miles from north to south and 16 miles from east to west. The river is some 3,900 feet (1,190 metres) wide at this point, although the riverbed has been artificially narrowed by embankment to a third of this width.

Climate

The climate is moderate and rather cool, the prevailing westerly winds bringing frequent changes of weather. The average yearly temperature is in the mid-40s F (about 8 °C), with a July average in the mid-60s F (about 19 °C) and a January average in the mid-20s F (about −3 °C). Yearly rainfall averages 21 inches (541 mm), most of which falls in the summer. Snow cover persists for 50 to 64 days a year.

City layout

The size of Warsaw reflects the historical fortunes of the city. From about 0.5 square mile (1.25 square km) in the 17th century, it expanded to 50 square miles (130 square km) by 1937 and, in the postwar period, to 172 square miles (445 square km) by 1957. Growth has continued since. The subdivision into seven districts—Śródmieście (the city’s centre), Żoliborz, Wola, Ochota, Mokotów, Praga-Południe (Praga South), and Praga-Północ (Praga North)—reflects centuries-old local names, but Warsaw is now virtually a new creation, with a layout that only partly resembles the historical city. The changes reflect a conscious planning of social and economic functions. Industries and warehouses are located on the outskirts or between modern housing developments; park areas have tripled in size; and streets, though still largely based on the old network, have been widened. The Old and New towns, Nowy Świat Avenue, and the city churches and palaces, on the other hand, have all been carefully reconstructed.

Warsaw possesses a wide variety of architectural monuments, whether as replicas or originals. In the Old Town, which was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage site in 1980, the Gothic St. John’s Cathedral and the red-brick fortifications known as the Barbican remain from the medieval period. The houses of the Old Town Market Square have been rebuilt in the splendour of their 15th-century style. There are many Baroque churches of the Counter-Reformation period, including the Jesuit Church next to the cathedral and the Church of the Holy Cross, which contains the heart of the Polish French composer Frédéric Chopin. The magnificently reconstructed Royal Castle, decorated in late 18th-century style, is on Zamkowy Square. Other royal and aristocratic palaces are at Łazienkowski Park and at John III Sobieski’s Wilanów. South of Łazienkowski Park is Belweder (Belvedere) Palace, a former presidential residence used now for ceremonial occasions. Remnants of the tsarist era are evident in the Church of St. Alexander in the middle of Trzech Krzyży Square and in the vast Alexander Citadel on the riverside, north of the New Town. The grandest of tsarist monuments, the colossal Orthodox Cathedral (1911), was demolished by the Polish government in the 1920s, but its symbolic role in the city has been assumed by the massive Palace of Culture and Science (1949), built by the Soviets south of the Old Town. The city’s modern architecture is generally regarded as undistinguished. Although the prewar garden suburbs of Żoliborz and Saska Kępa have survived, the vast sprawl of contemporary suburbia is made up in large part of seemingly endless expanses of uniform, prefabricated concrete apartment blocks.

Numerous historical monuments adorn Warsaw, some of which have been the object of political conflict. The postwar government was sensitive toward monuments and tended to discourage unapproved representations of people and events. For instance, the national shrine of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, which contains the body of a Polish youth killed in the battle for Lwów in 1919, bears only inscriptions starting with the Spanish Civil War in 1937. There is an imposing monument unveiled in 1948 in the Muranȯw area honouring the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943), but not until 1989, the year in which Solidarity formed the country’s first noncommunist national government since World War II, was there a memorial honouring the Home Army, which fought the Germans in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising. The statue of Feliks Dzerzhinsky (Polish: Dzierżyński), founder of the Soviet security police, which stood on Saxon Square on the spot where Tsar Nicholas I had raised a statue to his loyalist Polish generals, was removed in 1990. Other monuments affected by politics include the Nicolaus Copernicus statue on Ulica (street) Krakowskie Przedmieṡcie, which was the object of struggles with the Nazi occupiers, and the statue of Chopin, in Łazienkowski Park, which was destroyed by the Nazis in 1940 but has been reconstructed.

People

The multinational population of Warsaw was transformed as a result of World War II, and today the city is composed almost entirely of Poles. For centuries, though, Warsaw was a place where the Polish-speaking Roman Catholic majority lived alongside Jews, Germans, and Russians. Early in the 20th century the largely Yiddish-speaking Jewish community accounted for almost 50 percent of the population, although it declined somewhat after 1918. The old German community, originally connected with trade and commerce, was being assimilated, however, and the Russian community, influential in the 19th century, had dwindled. From 1939 to 1945, what remained of the former diversity was destroyed. Warsaw’s Jews were virtually annihilated by the Nazis, and their few remaining numbers have continued to decrease. The intelligentsia also was decimated, the administrative class connected with the prewar republic dispersed, and the working class diminished by deaths and deportations. After the war Warsaw had to be completely repopulated by returning refugees, by a vast influx of peasants from the countryside, and by the families of officials connected with the new communist state. The overwhelming majority of the people are Roman Catholic.

Economy

Manufacturing and services

After 1948, when Poland’s communist government was established, the largest segment of the city’s labour force was employed by state-owned and cooperatively owned sectors of the national economy; manufacturing accounted for about one-third of the workers in the 1980s. Shortages of some consumer goods and food items were a problem, symbolized by the rather common sight of people standing in lines to buy goods. Electrical engineering; metallurgy (including the Warsaw steelworks); machine production (including automobile manufacturing); and toolmaking, chemical, printing, textile and clothing, and food enterprises long dominated the economy. Since the 1990s, however, following the collapse of communism, the economic structure of the city has changed rapidly. In particular, the role of services, notably banking and insurance, has grown. There are increasing numbers of new private-sector firms and foreign companies in the city as well. The Warsaw Stock Exchange was reopened in 1991.

Transportation

Warsaw is the hub of main rail, road, and air routes that are of importance to eastern Europe. Expressways have been built through the city along both banks of the Vistula River and in the form of a ring road through the inner suburbs. Motor traffic still shares the capital’s main streets with a surface tramway system. The city also began constructing an underground railway system in the 1990s. The Warsaw Frédéric Chopin Airport, with international and domestic service, is in Okęcie, south of the city centre.

Administration and society

Government

As the capital of the Republic of Poland, Warsaw houses all the central institutions of the national government as well as the residence of the Polish president (the Presidential Palace). The Sejm, Poland’s national legislature, is not far from the crossroads of Nowy Świat and Aleje Jerozolimskie. The government of Warsaw is run by the elected City Council, headed by a city president. Warsaw’s seven subdivisions also have their own elected legislatures. Until 1990 the city administration was only nominally elective and subject to the Warsaw Committee of the Polish United Workers’ Party, the country’s communist party. The city is also the administrative centre of the Mazowieckie województwo.

Municipal services and health

Like most large cities, Warsaw is continually expanding its infrastructure to keep pace with its growth. A postwar housing shortage was alleviated with prefabricated housing units, and housing construction in the suburbs and future planning have continued. As in many European countries, medical and health services are virtually free for all citizens. Hospitals, outpatient clinics, and medical research facilities are widespread.

Education

Education in Warsaw benefits from the presence of the headquarters of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which coordinates research in both physical and social sciences through a number of institutes and industrial establishments. The Technical University of Warsaw and the University of Warsaw are notable institutions. Major libraries include the library (established in 1817) of the University of Warsaw and the National Library (1919); there are also a number of specialist libraries.

Источник: www.britannica.com

Ароматы свежей выпечки, кебаба и кофе в Варшаве преследовали меня на каждом шагу во время моего знакомства с городом. Я убедилась в том, что поляки знают толк в еде, ведь она здесь абсолютно уникальная и невероятно вкусная.

Стрит-фуд

Средний чек — 2–4 EUR / 10–20 PLN. Рекомендую:

  • Targ Sniadaniowy — это уличный breakfast market, который в летнее время года проходит по выходным в двух парках города и дарит всем атмосферу настоящего семейного праздника на свежем воздухе. Помимо традиционной польской кухни здесь можно приобрести сезонные фермерские продукты, выпечку и блюда разных кухонь мира. Маркет проходит по воскресеньям в парке района Mokotów, а по субботам в парке у Żoliborz. Также в этом месте найдутся развлечения на любой вкус: кулинарные воркшопы на разные темы или даже йога под открытым небом.
    Warsaw poland
  • Okienko — обычное окно, где можно заказать бельгийскую картошку, бутерброды, пончики, булочки и кофе. А затем съесть это прямо на скамейке или в парке на газоне.
  • King Kebab — самый известный и самый вкусный кебаб в городе. Любимый перекус местных и туристов. Работает круглосуточно, цены демократичные.
    Warsaw poland
  • Falafel Beirut — бывшая тележка на местном рынке, теперь киоск в центре Варшавы с большим выбором свежего фалафеля и хумуса.
  • Lody I Gofry — это местный сладкий фаст-фуд. Небольшие микроавтобусы с едой выглядывают из-за каждого угла и манят своими вафлями со взбитыми сливками, фруктами и сиропом, очень вкусным мороженым.
    Warsaw poland

Польская кухня

Средний чек составит 4–7 EUR / 20–30 PLN.

Warsaw poland Сеть ресторанов Zapiecek славится национальной кухней. Здесь есть все: вареники, супы, мясо, пиво, соленья, колбасы и т. д. Большая тарелка вареников обойдется вам в 5 EUR/ 23 PLN, а порция национального супа с хлебом, соленьями и колбаской будет стоить 4 EUR / 17 PLN. Также в поисках традиционной кухни рекомендую отправляться в рестораны Dawne Smaki, Kameralna, U Szwejka.

Столовые

Средний чек — 3–5 EUR / 15 PLN.

Немалой популярностью в Варшаве пользуются столовые, куда приходят не только студенты и пенсионеры, а все, кто хочет есть вкусно и дешево. Лучшие столовые города — это Bambino, Prasowy, Mleczarnia Jerozolimska. Здесь подают блины, супы, каши, мясо и многое другое.

Для вегетарианцев

Средний чек — 4–7 EUR / 20–30 PLN.

Warsaw poland В кафе Momełcik вы найдете вегетарианские буррито за 4 EUR/ 17 PLN, гаспачо, сладости и фреши. Отведать веганские хот-доги и бургеры можно в Tygrys, Krowarzywa и Jamniczek, а в Vegan Pizza, Mąka i woda и Trattoria Ruccola готовят вегетариаскую пиццу на безглютеновом тесте. Еще одна хорошая веганская столовая — Loving Hut.

Источник: travelask.ru

  • Иоанн Павел II (1920—2005) — папа римский (1978—2005).
  • Склодовская-Кюри, Мария (1867—1934) — польско-французский учёный-экспериментатор (физик, химик), педагог, общественный деятель. Дважды лауреат Нобелевской премии.
  • Пилсудский, Юзеф (1867—1935) — польский государственный и политический деятель, первый глава возрождённого польского государства, основатель польской армии.
  • Падеревский, Игнаций Ян (1860—1941) — польский пианист, композитор, государственный и общественный деятель.
  • Халлер, Юзеф (1873—1960) — польский генерал.
  • Желиговский, Люциан (1865—1947) — польский генерал и политический деятель.
  • Вейган, Максим (1867—1965) — французский военный деятель.
  • Гувер, Герберт Кларк (1874—1964) — тридцать первый президент США.
  • Фош, Фердинанд (1851—1929) — французский военный деятель, Маршал Франции.
  • Гейштор, Александр (1916—1999) — польский историк, президент Польской академии наук.
  • Качоровский, Рышард (1919—2010) — польский государственный деятель.
  • Каминьский, Францишек (1902—2000) — генерал дивизии Войска Польского.
  • Бартошевский, Владислав (род. 1922) — польский историк, публицист, дипломат, государственный деятель.
  • Глемп, Юзеф (род. 1929) — кардинал
  • Эдельман, Марек (1919—2009) — польский и еврейский общественный деятель, кардиолог, последний руководитель восстания в Варшавском гетто.
  • Пешковский, Здзислав (1918—2007) — католический пресвитер, доктор философии.
  • Сендлер, Ирена (1910—2008) — польская активистка движения сопротивления.
  • Валенса, Лех (род. 1943) — польский политический деятель, активист и защитник прав человека, прежний руководитель независимого профсоюза «Солидарность», президент Польши (1990—1995). Лауреат Нобелевской премии мира 1983 года.
  • Аксер, Эрвин (род. 1917) — польский театральный режиссёр
  • Далай-лама XIV (род. 1935) — духовный лидер буддистов. Лауреат Нобелевской премии мира 1989 года.
  • Пилецкий, Витольд (1901—1948) — организатор движения сопротивления в концентрационном лагере Освенцим.
  • Мазовецкий, Тадеуш (1927—2013) — польский политик, один из лидеров движения «Солидарность» и первый посткоммунистический премьер-министр Польши (1989—1991).
  • Качиньский, Лех (1949—2010) — президент Польши (2005—2010).
  • Квасьневский, Александр (род. 1954) — польский государственный и политический деятель, президент Польской Республики (1995—2005).
  • Скаржиньский, Хенрык (род. 1954) — польский врач, оториноларинголог, аудиолог, фониатр, создатель и директор Варшавского Института Физиологии и Патологии Слуха и Международного Центра Слуха и Речи.
  • Дэвис, Норман (род. 1939) — британский историк.
  • Бузек, Ежи (род. 1940) — польский политик, премьер-министр Польши (1997—2001), председатель Европарламента (2009)[13].

Источник: ru.wikipedia.org


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