Эверглейдс занимает третье место по своей площади среди национальных парков США. Он расположен сразу в трех округах на юге полуострова Флорида. Значительная часть территории парка заболочена. Система болот Эверглейдс считается самой большой в мире.

Основанный еще в 1947 году, парк уже входит в список Всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО. Здесь среди прерий, покрытых меч-травой, многочисленных рек и озер можно встретить миссисипских аллигаторов, кайманов, ядовитых змей и черепах в естественной среде обитания.

Прогуляться пешком по лесным тропам и понаблюдать за редкими птицами и животными. А у берегов Мексиканского залива увидеть ламантин и дельфинов. В общей сложности сорок видов животных из Красной книги и чуть менее тысячи видов растений, в том числе эндемиков, которые произрастают только в этой местности.

Билеты в парк Эверглейдс

Вход в национальный парк платный. Чтобы попасть на территорию Эверглейдс, нужно приобрести билет на одном из трех въездов. Стоимость зависит от способа передвижения по парку:

  • за проезд на автомобиле — 30 долларов;
  • за мотоцикл — 25 долларов;
  • велосипедистам и пешеходам — 15 долларов.

Бесплатно могут зайти дети возрастом до 16 лет.

Билеты действительны в течение недели и с ними можно пройти во все зоны Эверглейдс. Дополнительно оплачиваются только экскурсии.

Сезоны для посещения

Национальный парк работает в течение всего года, но климат здесь делится на два разных сезона.

В каком месяце лучше посещать парк зависит от личных предпочтений. Зима считается лучшим временем для посещения Эверглейдс. В этот период держится комфортная температура и практически нет москитов, но большинство растительности желтеет.

Летом обратная ситуация. Воздух сильно прогревается и стоит высокая влажность. Зато болота выглядят более живописными. Единственное время года, когда стоит воздержаться от поездки в национальный парк — это осень, так как с сентября по ноябрь длится сезон ураганов.

Въезды в национальный парк Эверглейдс


Попасть в национальный парк можно сразу из трех районов Флориды. А узнать все о местных обитателях у рейнджеров в информационных центрах. Главный въезд расположен рядом с городом Хомстед. Здесь же на небольшом расстоянии друг от друга находятся информационные центры Ernest F. Coe, Royal Palm и Flamingo. Первые два известны своими пешими маршрутами, среди которых Anhinga Trail и Gumbo Limbo Trail с возможностью увидеть аллигаторов. В последнем есть прокат лодок, чтобы самостоятельно исследовать болота по воде.

Самый северный въезд и информационный центр Shark Valley расположен рядом с Майами. Сюда приезжают любители прогулок на велосипеде. Для этого здесь оборудована кольцевая дорога и прокат спортинвентаря. Также в этой части парка стоит двадцатиметровая смотровая вышка с шикарным панорамным видом.

Последний вход в парк находится в Эверглейдс-Сити и называется Gulf Coast. Пользуясь тем, что город расположен на берегу Мексиканского залива, туристы берут каноэ и исследуют морскую зону Эверглейдс. Также отсюда можно отправиться в «дикую» часть парка, получив специальное разрешение (пермит) у сотрудников.

Развлечения

Прежде всего Эверглейдс привлекает к себе туристов, которые хотят увидеть редких животных в их привычных условиях. Для них обустроены маршруты (трейлы): Shark Valley Loop Road, Bobcat Boardwalk, Otter Cave, Anhinga, Gumbo-Limbo. По ним можно пройти пешком или проехать на велосипеде. Каждый занимает от 20 минут до часа.


Также в информационных центрах есть возможность взять в аренду прогулочную лодку, байдарку или каноэ. Более скоростной способ передвижения по болотам — сафари на аэролодках. За них доплачивается отдельно. Еще один вид развлечений — водные экскурсии на лодках и речных трамвайчиках. Они отходят от причалов в центрах Flamingo, Shark Valley и Gulf Coast.

Помимо обустроенной территории с инфраструктурой, в парке есть обширные зоны дикой природы. Туда отправляются с палатками после инструктажа в информационном центре.

Как добраться

Чтобы попасть в национальный парк Эверглейдс нужно воспользоваться одним из трех входов. Они расположены в разных городах Флориды на расстоянии пары часов друг от друга.

Национальный парк Эверглейдс на google-панораме:

Входы в северную часть парка находятся рядом с Майами и Эверглейдс-Сити, а в южную — в Хомстеде. Добраться до них можно только на автомобиле, так как остановок общественного транспорта рядом с парком нет.


Из Хомстеда

Рядом с городом расположены сразу три информационных центра: Ernest F. Coe, Royal Palm и Flamingo. Первые два находятся на расстоянии 6 километров друг от друга. Дорога до них занимает 20–30 минут по трассе State Road 9336.

Чтобы доехать до Flamingo Visitor Center, нужно придерживаться юго-западного направления в сторону побережья по трассе State Road 9336. Путь займет около часа.

Из Майами

Ближайший крупный город от информационного центра Shark Valley — Майами. Он расположен в часе езды. Чтобы добраться до этого въезда в национальный парк, необходимо следовать строго на запад по шоссе US-41.

Последний информационный центр Gulf Coast находится прямо в городе Эверглейдс-Сити, расположенном на западном побережье Флориды. Сюда можно доехать из Майами по шоссе US-41 за пару часов.

Такси

Большая часть въездов в национальный парк расположены на удалении от крупных городов, поэтому с поездкой на такси в обратную сторону могут возникнуть затруднения. Поэтому лучше договариваться с водителем заранее. Самый удобный способ заказа такси — через мобильные сервисы Uber или Lyft.

Источник: www.tourister.ru


Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Everglades National Park is the largest designated sub-tropical wilderness reserve on the North American continent. Its juncture at the interface of temperate and sub-tropical America, fresh and brackish water, shallow bays and deeper coastal waters creates a complex of habitats supporting a high diversity of flora and fauna. It contains the largest mangrove ecosystem in the Western Hemisphere, the largest continuous stand of sawgrass prairie and the most significant breeding ground for wading birds in North America.

Criterion (viii): The Everglades is a vast, nearly flat, seabed that was submerged at the end of the last Ice Age. Its limestone substrate is one of the most active areas of modern carbonate sedimentation.

Criterion (ix): The Everglades contains vast subtropical wetlands and coastal/marine ecosystems including freshwater marshes, tropical hardwood hammocks, pine rocklands, extensive mangrove forests, saltwater marshes, and seagrass ecosystems important to commercial and recreational fisheries. Complex biological processes range from basic algal associations through progressively higher species and ultimately to primary predators such as the alligator, crocodile, and Florida panther; the food chain is superbly evident and unbroken. The mixture of subtropical and temperate wildlife species is found nowhere else in the United States.


Criterion (x): Everglades National Park is a noteworthy example of viable biological processes. The exceptional variety of its water habitats has made it a sanctuary for a large number of birds and reptiles and it provides refuge for over 20 rare, endangered, and threatened species. These include the Florida panther, snail kite, alligator, crocodile, and manatee. It provides important foraging and breeding habitat for more than 400 species of birds, includes the most significant breeding grounds for wading birds in North America and is a major corridor for migration.

Integrity

Everglades National Park, at 610,670 hectares, of which 567,000 hectares were inscribed as a World Heritage site (the park has since been expanded), is at the center of a complex of federal and state (Florida) protected areas, including the Big Cypress National Preserve (295,000 hectares), Biscayne National Park (70,000 hectares), Dry Tortugas National Park (24,300 hectares), 10 National Wildlife Refuges, and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Just to the north (upstream) of the park the wetlands are protected within Florida state-managed Water Conservation Areas (350,000 hectares). To the east of the park Miami-Dade County has established an urban development boundary, preserving a buffer area of rural and agricultural lands from rapid urbanization.  

Within Everglades National Park strict natural, managed natural and developed zones have been identified, and 86% of the park is in federally legislated wilderness.
keeping with the tenor of the 1934 authorizing legislation, the development of visitor facilities has progressed according to a concept of preserving the park’s essential wilderness qualities and keeping developmental encroachments to a minimum. About 0.1% of the park can be considered developed. While the park contains just 20 percent of the original Everglades ecosystem, it is a good representation of the range of original habitats.

Water management manipulations have been recognized as the largest environmental threat to the park and the larger Everglades ecosystem. The water flow volumes into the northern boundary of the park are believed to have decreased by approximately 60 percent compared to estimates of pre-drainage flows. Problems with water quality and with changes in the timing and distribution of inflows have also been well documented, and these have had detrimental impacts on the native wildlife and vegetation populations. The park’s legal boundaries encompass the southern end of a 4,660,000 hectares watershed that covers the southern third of the State of Florida. Water is diverted in upstream areas to provide flood protection and water supply for the expanding south Florida human population. In the northern wetlands of the park, reduced inflows have caused a loss of deep-water slough communities that are required to support healthy populations of fish and aquatic invertebrates, and wading bird populations are estimated at just 10% of pre-drainage levels.
evated nutrients from agricultural effluents have altered the natural populations of emergent plants, leading to invasions by nutrient tolerant species, and a loss of the algal associations known as periphyton. Increased salinity in Florida Bay, due to reduced freshwater deliveries, has contributed to major changes in submerged aquatic vegetation, declines in many sportfish, and the spread of algal blooms.

The park is also facing a challenge from the introduction of numerous non-native species, including in particular the Burmese python, which has proliferated in the park. Loss of organic soils across park habitats, due to wildfires and oxidation associated with overdrainage, occurred during and after the major elements of the water management system were constructed between 1900 and 1970. Although hurricanes are a natural phenomenon in the region, intense or frequent storms can damage the already strained ecosystem. Finally, increasing ocean acidification may affect biogeochemical processes related to carbonate precipitation, particularly along the southwestern boundary between Florida Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.

Protection and management requirements

Designated by the U.S. Congress in 1934 as a national park, Everglades National Park is managed under the authority of the Organic Act of August 25, 1916 which established the United States National Park Service (NPS).  In addition, the park has specific enabling legislation which provides broad congressional direction regarding the primary purposes of the park. Numerous other federal laws bring additional layers of protection to the park and its resources. Day to day management is directed by the Park Superintendent.


Management goals and objectives for the property are guided through the General Management Plan and the park’s Foundation Document, which provides additional guidance for planning and management.  In addition, the NPS has established Management Policies which provide broader direction for all units nation-wide, including Everglades National Park.

Strong cooperative partnerships and/or formal agreements are in place with the various Federal, State, Local, and Tribal governments that manage the Everglades. The South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force formally coordinates the ecosystem restoration related programs of all of these agencies. Consultation with stakeholders is a requirement of the Everglades Restoration process. The Everglades Coalition, which brings together the major environmental non-governmental stakeholders in south Florida, works to bring greater attention to environmental protection requirements.

The native plant and animal communities of southern Florida are extremely vulnerable to disturbance from human activities, and are threatened by agricultural and urban expansion, drainage, deliberate and accidental burning, water and air pollution, and the introduction of exotic species.


Management actions primarily involve the implementation of flow restoration and water quality improvement projects to be constructed in the upstream basins, and focus on re-establishment of flow in the central part of the ecosystem, including the park.

Источник: whc.unesco.org

Why go and what to know

Sprawling between South Florida’s Lake Okeechobee and the Gulf of Mexico, the Everglades is one of the world’s largest tropical wetlands. About 20 percent of the region is protected within the confines of Everglades National Park, the third largest national park in the lower 48 states. While the park’s main purpose is preserving a wilderness like none other in North America, the Everglades also provides plenty of scope for outdoor adventure. (Check out our travel guide to Florida.)

Although technically a wetland, perhaps it’s best to think of the Everglades as the nation’s slowest, widest river—a constant stream of freshwater roughly 60 miles wide, moving at a speed of around 2.5 miles per day as it makes its way south to Florida Bay. The Seminole people called the region Okeechobee (“river of grass”). And while a large part of the Everglades is covered in razor-sharp sawgrass, the region also encompasses mangrove swamps, tropical hardwood hammocks (island forests), pine and cypress forests, freshwater prairie, and various marine and estuarine habitats. (Plan a trip to Everglades National Park with kids.)

The hundred-mile-long Everglades ecosystem once flowed freely from Lake Okeechobee to Florida Bay. Although the park is a federally protected area at the downstream, southernmost portion of the Everglades, upstream development and agribusiness continue to diminish watery habitats (home to abundant wildlife, including tropical wading birds and the endangered Florida manatee).

To help restore water flow and preserve one of eastern North America’s last remaining grassland and longleaf pine savanna landscapes, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service established the Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area in 2011. Global interest in preserving the Everglades has led to the park’s designation as a UNESCO World Heritage site and International Biosphere Reserve, a Wetland of International Importance, and a specially protected area under the Cartagena Treaty.

Can’t-miss experiences

Although the entire coast is open to exploration via watercraft, land-bound visitors have three options for entering the park: Flamingo in the southwest, Shark Valley in the northeast, and Gulf Coast in the northwest.

The Ernest F. Coe Visitor Center is the place to start for those making the 38-mile drive to Florida Bay. Some of the park’s best hikes are just beyond the visitor center, including the short, easy Gumbo Limbo Trail (0.4 mile) and Anhinga Trail (0.8 mile), which wind through a wildlife-rich hammock called Royal Palm, and the 6.1-mile Long Pine Key Trail through the park’s largest remaining stand of native pines.

Main Park Road continues through a variety of ecosystems—the freshwater prairie, stunted cypress forest, mangrove and coastal marsh—to Flamingo on the shore of Florida Bay. Badly damaged by Hurricane Irma in 2017, the area has slowly recovered with the reopening of the Flamingo Visitor Center, beachfront campground, and boat and bike rental facilities.

In addition to paddling along the shore of Florida Bay, the area boasts a number of inland routes, including the Nine Mile Pond Loop and the Bear Lake Canoe Trail. Flamingo is the southern terminus of the Everglades’ ultimate kayak/canoe experience—the Wilderness Waterway—a 99-mile meander through mangroves and marshes with raised platform “chickee hut” campsites along the way. An entire week is recommended for those who want to make the complete journey between Flamingo and Everglades City.

Reached via the historic Tamiami Trail highway across the Everglades, Shark Valley Visitor Center is the gateway to a much different park experience—a chance to explore the freshwater grasslands and hammocks of the Shark River Slough. You won’t come across any sharks, but this might be the best place in the entire park to view crocodiles, turtles, and bird life at close range. The 15-mile Shark Valley Tram Road expedites hiking, biking, and a narrated tram tour to a 65-foot Observation Tower with views across the wet wilds. Seasonally, rangers lead full moon and meteor shower bike rides to the tower.

Thirty-six miles from Naples, the Gulf Coast Visitor Center and the town of Everglades City anchor the park’s northwest corner. Daily boat tours are available to the remote Ten Thousand Islands archipelago along the Gulf of Mexico. Gulf Coast is also a jumping-off spot for the Wilderness Waterway, as well as shorter paddle routes like the Turner River Canoe Trail. Everglades City is home to several airboat tours that explore parts of the Everglades outside the national park.

Источник: www.nationalgeographic.com


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