The Grand Royal Opening of Tower Bridge
The Grand Royal Opening of Tower Bridge

Tower Bridge was officially opened by the Prince of Wales (not the current one obviously) over 120 years ago. This special bridge is one that many associate with London. Anyone who sees this Bridge immediately knows that it’s in London (so it’s often the first thing shown in stock footage about London). It’s certainly a beautiful bridge. The Bridge is celebrating its birthday today – it was opened on this day in 1894 by the Prince of Wales, (the future King Edward VII) with much celebration.

So, with much fanfare, here are 10 facts and figures you probably didn’t know about the iconic Bridge.

It’s Not Actually Called London Bridge


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It’s a common misconception that the bridge is called London Bridge (and that there’s a song about it). This is actually called Tower Bridge, London Bridge is further down the river and is much more utilitarian.

There Were Over 50 Designs for the Bridge

When the decision was taken to build a bridge, a design contest was held to choose the best design. Over 50 designs were submitted – some close to what was built and some that were absolutely bonkers. The evaluation of the designs was surrounded by controversy, and it was not until 1884 that a design submitted by Sir Horace Jones, the City Architect (who was also one of the judges), was approved. Check out a gallery of the other designs here.

You Can Watch the Bridge Live, 24 Hours a Day

There’s a live HD Webcam trained on Tower Bridge 24 hours a day. Watch it here.

What’s in a Name?

Tower Bridge isn’t named so because it is one of the few bridges on the Thames that features towers. In fact, it’s named after the Tower of London which is located on one side of the Bridge. The Tower of London also influenced the final design.


Raw Numbers

The bridge is 800 feet (244 m) in length with two towers each 213 feet (65 m) high, built on piers. The central span of 200 feet (61 m) between the towers is split into two equal bascules or leaves, which can be raised to an angle of 86 degrees to allow river traffic to pass. The bascules, weighing over 1,000 tons each, are counterbalanced to minimize the force required and allow raising in five minutes.

Ladies of the Night

Tower Bridge

The high-level open air walkways between the towers gained an unpleasant reputation as a haunt for prostitutes and pickpockets; as they were only accessible by stairs they were seldom used by regular pedestrians, and were closed in 1910. In 1982 they were reopened as part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition, a display housed in the bridge’s twin towers, the high-level walkways and the Victorian engine rooms.

Bridge Openings


The bridge usually opens at least once a day and if you’re a boat that requires an opening, you need to book it in advance. The bascules are raised around 1000 times a year. River traffic is now much reduced, but it still takes priority over road traffic. Today, 24 hours’ notice is required before opening the bridge. There is no charge for vessels. You can see when the Bridge will open next on its website. It’s quite an amazing sight!

Crossing the Thames

The bridge is crossed by over 40,000 people every day and it is still a busy and vital crossing of the Thames. The bridge is on the London Inner Ring Road, and is on the eastern boundary of the London congestion charge zone. (Drivers do not incur a charge by crossing the bridge.) To maintain the integrity of the structure, the City of London Corporation has imposed a 20 miles per hour (32 km/h) speed restriction, and an 18 ton weight limit on vehicles using the bridge. A camera system measures the speed of traffic crossing the bridge, utilizing a number plate recognition system to send fixed penalty charges to speeding drivers. So, if you ever get to cross, don’t speed across – enjoy it as a leisurely pace or else you’ll get a ticket (even in a rental car!).

Victorian Engineering

Despite having an architectural design that makes the bridge look old, it is in fact a very modern piece of architecture as construction of the bridge began in 1886 at the height of the Victorian era.


was made of steel and consisted of two towers built on piers. The central span was split into two equal bascules or leaves and the towers were clad in stone to give a more “traditional” appearance to match nearby Tower of London. Tower Bridge is basically a steel frame clad in stone, a design principle not that dissimilar to modern buildings.

Источник: londontopia.net

The City of Westminster

Westminster Abbey

Westminster area is also called the City of Westminster. It is the most important part of London, where Parliament and most government offices are located.

Westminster Abbey is regarded as the centre of this area. They say. the City was founded here near the monastery as far back as the 7th century.

In the 11th century King Edward the Confessor decided to build a great abbey church there. It was a monastery for a long time.

William the Conqueror was crowned there and since then many kings and queens of England followed this tradition. There is the ancient Coronation Chair beneath which there is the Stone of Scone (the ancient Scottish Coronation Throne that was brought to England by King Edward I as a sign of defeat of Scotland.


Many English kings and queens and other famous statesmen, writers, scientists are buried in Westminster Abbey. Among them there are two queens rivals Elizabeth I Tudor and Mary Stuart. Oliver Cromwell. Charles Dickens. Rudyard Kipling, Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin. It is famous for the Poet’s Corner, where most popular writers (Kipling. Chaucer, Hardy, Dickens), poets and musicians are buried.

Opposite Westminster Abbey there are the Houses of Parliament, which are often called the Palace of Westminster (or Westminster Palace). Westminster Palace was built in medieval days. It was a place of royal dwelling as early as the 11th century, which later became the meeting place of Parliament. It was destroyed many times by fire, and the foundation stone of the new Houses of Parliament was laid in 1840.

It is a beautiful building with two towers. In the north part of the Houses there is Victoria Tower. It is 104 metres high and the national flag is hoisted on its top when the Parliament is sitting. In the southern part of the building there is its clock tower, St. Stephen’s Tower with the famous Big Ben.


Тауэрский мост на английском

Big Ben

Parliament Square in front of the Palace of Westminster is famous for the monuments to great British statesmen. There is a monument to Oliver Cromwell and a monument to Winston Churchill.

Whitehall, the governmental street, begins from Parliament Square. Most British ministries like the Admiralty and official residences are situated here. The British Government itself is often called Whitehall.

Downing Street is very small and is usually associated with Whitehall. Downing Street (House 10) is the official residence of British prime ministers.

Down the Whitehall Street there is not less popular street called the Mall, the straightest and the broadest street in the central part of London.

Тауэрский мост на английском

Buckingham Palace. Trafalgar Square

Buckingham Palace (the Palace) is the official London residence of the Queen and the Royal family. When the Queen is at the residence the flag is flying on top of Buckingham Palace. It was a country residence of the Duke of Buckingham. But in the 19th century it was rebuilt for King George. The square in front of the Palace is decorated with Victoria Memorial built in 1911.


Тауэрский мост на английском

Busby Nelsons Column

Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of the British capital. The square was named «Trafalgar» to commemorate Admiral Nelson’s victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. There is the monument in the centre of the square known as Nelson’s Column. Around the monument there are four bronze bar-reliefs, representing scenes of Nelson’s life and death.

The statue is guarded at the base by four bronze lions. Nelson was killed in the battle but the victory was won. The English consider Admiral Nelson to be a national hero for his victory in the war against Napoleon.

The National Gallery (a great picture museum) is situated on Trafalgar Square. It contains a wonderful collection of works from the British, French, Italian, Dutch and Spanish schools, which existed between the 13th and the 19th centuries.

Scotland Yard is the name of the police headquarters and the police itself.

Fleet Street is associated with British newspapers and is located between Westminster and the City.

 

Источник: licey.net


мост в Лондане - топик

Тауэрский мост — одна из уникальных и удивительных достопримечательностей Англии. Это великое сооружение для перехода расположено в центральной части Лондона, столица которого — Великобритания, и объединяет оба берега реки Темзы. Рядом находится Тауэр — самая знаменитая и страшная темница в мире. Именно в честь этой темницы мост имеет название Тауэрский, так как был построен в качестве переправы из этой темницы.

Над проектом по строительству моста работал один из выдающихся архитекторов Англии Джон Хорас. Он принял участие в конкурсе среди большинства известных архитекторов и стал победителем. Хорас предложил построить разводной мост над рекой Темзой, чтобы разгрузить движение на других площадках. Власти Англии долго думали и спустя 8 лет согласились и одобрили предложенный проект. Начались подготовительные работы, которые длились два года. В 1886 году началось строительство, которое продолжалось долгих восемь лет. Мост был официально открыт в 1894 году. На его строительство потребовалось около 1 миллиона фунтов, десятки тысяч тонн металла, природного камня и гранита. 350 человек трудились чтобы возвести это выдающееся сооружение, 10 человек погибли во время строительных работ.


Мост представлен в виде красивых башен, которые прекрасно передают всю прелесть готического стиля. Башни соединены огромной платформой, и возвышаются словно огромные замки. Платформа служит для передвижения людей с одного конца на другой. Также имеются галереи и коридоры, которые обеспечивают людям безопасное перемещение. Существует четкий график в какое время разводятся стороны этого чудо-творения. Раньше они разводились как только было замечено подплывающее к судно. Часовой подавал сигнал, и разводящиеся стороны расходились. Сигнал звучал для людей, которые в спешке начинали покидать проезжую часть. После того как судно проплывало, разводные пролеты снова сходились.

Сейчас график изменился, если раньше мост разводили по 30 раз в день, то сейчас 3-5 раз. Туристы желающие полюбоваться на это событие, могут подняться на верхнюю платформу по лифтам которые установлены в башнях, или использовать винтовые лестницы идущие от дорожной части.

Перевод

The Tower Bridge is one of the unique and amazing sights of England. This great structure for the crossing is located in the central part of London, the capital is Great Britain, and unites both banks of the River Thames. Nearby is the Tower — the most famous and terrible prison in the world. It is in honor of this dungeon the bridge has the name of Tower, because it was built as a ferry from this dungeon.


The project for the construction of the bridge was worked by one of the most outstanding architects of England, John Horace. He took part in the competition among the most famous architects and became the winner. Horace suggested building a drawbridge over the River Thames to relieve traffic on other sites. The authorities of England thought for a long time and after 8 years agreed and approved the proposed draft. Preparatory work began, which lasted two years. In 1886 construction began, which lasted for long eight years. The bridge was officially opened in 1894. Its construction required about 1 million pounds, tens of thousands of tons of metal, natural stone and granite. 350 people worked to erect this outstanding structure, 10 people were killed during construction work.

The bridge is presented in the form of beautiful towers, which perfectly convey all the charm of the Gothic style. The towers are connected by a huge platform, and towering like huge castles. The platform serves to move people from one end to the other. Also there are galleries and corridors that provide people with a safe movement. There is a clear timetable at what time the parties divorce this wonder-creation. Previously, they were divorced as soon as it was seen the ship. The sentry signaled, and the divorced sides parted. The signal sounded for people who were in a hurry to leave the roadway. After the ship floated, the swing flights again converged.

Now the schedule has changed, if before the bridge was bred 30 times a day, now it is 3-5 times. Tourists wishing to admire this event can climb the upper platform by the elevators that are installed in the towers, or use the spiral staircases coming from the roadway.

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Источник: s-english.ru

London’s Tower Bridge is one of the most recognizable bridges in the world. Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge over the River Thames in London and takes its name from the nearby Tower of London. It has become an iconic symbol of the city and a very popular tourist attraction.

In 1876 the City of London Corporation had an idea to build a new bridge but it was clear that the new bridge would not disrupt river traffic. There were more than 50 designs and it wasn’t easy to choose the best. Finely design of Sir Horace Jones and Sir John Wolfe Barry was chosen. In 1886 the Bridge’s construction began. Tower Bridge was officially opened on 30th June 1894.

​The bridge is 244m (800 ft) long between two 65m (213 ft) tall towers constructed on piers. The central span of 61m (200 ft) between the towers is split equally into two bascules or leaves, which can be raised to an angle of 83 degrees to allow river traffic to pass through. The bascules weigh over 1,100 tons each and are counterbalanced to minimize the force required to raise them, an operation which takes just five minutes. They are raised by huge hydraulic pumps which were first powered by coal burning steam engines which were replaced by electricity and oil in 1976. The two side-spans are suspension bridges, each being 82m (270 ft) in length.

​There are two high level walkways between the towers which allow to cross the river even when the bridge deck is raised. These walkways were closed to the public in 1910 due to lack of use but were reopened as fully covered passages in 1982 as part of the then newly launched Tower Bridge Exhibition.

Лондонский Тауэрский мост — один из самых узнаваемых мостов в мире. «Тауэр Бридж» — это объединенный мост и подвесной мост через реку Темзу в Лондоне и берет свое название от близлежащей Башни Лондона. Это стало знаковым символом города и очень популярной достопримечательностью.

В 1876 году у корпорации Лондона появилась идея построить новый мост, но было ясно, что новый мост не нарушит движение реки. Было более 50 дизайнов, и было нелегко выбрать лучшее. Был выбран тончайший дизайн сэра Гораса Джонса и сэра Джона Вулфа Барри. В 1886 году началось строительство моста. Тауэрский мост был официально открыт 30 июня 1894 года.

Мост длиной 244 м (800 футов) между двумя башнями высотой 65 м (213 футов), построенными на причалах. Центральный промежуток 61 м (200 футов) между башнями разделен поровну на две раковины или листья, которые могут быть подняты до угла 83 градуса, чтобы пройти через речное движение. Баккулы весом более 1100 тонн каждый и уравновешены, чтобы свести к минимуму силу, необходимую для их поднятия, операцию, которая занимает всего пять минут. Они поднимаются огромными гидравлическими насосами, которые вначале были оснащены паровыми двигателями сжигания угля, которые были заменены электричеством и нефтью в 1976 году. Два боковых пролета — это подвесные мосты длиной 82 м (270 футов).

Между башнями есть две дорожки высокого уровня, которые позволяют пересечь реку, даже когда поднят мост. Эти проходы были закрыты для публики в 1910 году из-за отсутствия использования, но были вновь открыты как полностью закрытые пассажи в 1982 году в рамках недавно выпущенной выставки Tower Bridge.

Источник: vashurok.ru

Tower Bridge

Лондон

If you make a list of the most beautiful sights in London, Tower Bridge will surely be in the top ten. Located in the historical center of London, this construction is one of the places that tourists must visit. And it is not surprising, because this magnificent bridge conveys the spirit of Britain, a country in which centuries-old traditions are intertwined with vital necessity through an elegant solution.

By the way, transport problems became the reason for the construction of the bridge: due to the growing economy, numerous traffic jams appeared at the end of the 19th century, which prevented the movement of horse-drawn carriages and pedestrians, as well as numerous ships. Parliament decided that the capital needed another bridge that would connect the left and right banks of the Thames and harmoniously fit into the historical center of London.

In 1876, a competition was announced in which about 50 works took part, they were considered for several years. In the end, in 1884, the project by Horace Jones, the chief architect of the city, won. The construction of the bridge began in 1886, the work was carried out for 8 years. Horace Jones died a year after the start of work and engineer John Wolf-Berry began to supervise the construction of the grandiose structure, which was completed in 1894.

Now residents of Britain and tourists from all over the world enjoy the view of this bridge, made in the Gothic style. Tower Bridge has two towers connected by walkways on which pedestrians move. Since 1982, these passages have housed a museum and an observation deck. Also, the bridge is equipped with lifting bascules, these are two roadbeds that can rise so that ships pass under the bridge.

Tower Bridge combines solemn beauty, practicality, and elegance. Therefore, it is one of the hallmarks of London, along with Big Ben and Buckingham Palace.

Перевод

Если вы составите список самых красивых достопримечательностей Лондона, то Тауэрский мост наверняка войдет в первую десятку. Находясь в историческом центре Лондона, это сооружение относится к числу мест, обязательно посещаемых туристами. И не удивительно, ведь этот величественный мост передает дух Британии, страны, в которой вековые традиции переплетаются с жизненной необходимостью через элегантное решение.

Между прочим, причиной строительства моста стали транспортные проблемы: из-за растущей экономики в конце 19 века возникали многочисленные пробки, что мешало двигаться как конным экипажам и пешеходам, так и многочисленным судам.  Парламент решил, что столице был нужен еще один мост, который соединит левый и правый берег Темзы и гармонично впишется в исторический центр Лондона.

В 1876 году был объявлен конкурс, в котором приняли участие около 50 работ, которые рассматривались в течение нескольких лет. В конце концов, в 1884 году победил проект Горация Джонса, главного архитектора города. Строительство моста началось в 1886 году, работы велись в течение 8 лет. Гораций Джонс умер через год после начала работ, и инженер Джон Вольф-Берри начал руководить строительством грандиозного сооружения, которое было завершено в 1894 году.

Теперь жители Британии и туристы со всего мира наслаждаются видом этого моста, выполненного в готическом стиле. Тауэрский мост имеет две башни, соединенные переходами, по которым движутся пешеходы. С 1982 года в этих галереях размещаются музей и смотровая площадка. Также мост оснащен подъемными крыльями, это две дорожные полосы, которые могут подниматься так, чтобы корабли проходили под мостом.

Тауэрский мост сочетает в себе торжественную красоту, практичность и элегантность. Поэтому он является одной из визитных карточек Лондона наряду с Биг Беном и Букингемским дворцом.

Автор: Ganenkova Maria

Источник: online-teacher.ru


Categories: Мост

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