Топик по английскому языку США является одной из наиболее популярных тем для обсуждения в школе и нередко попадается в экзаменационных билетах. Топик по английскому США даст представление об этой замечательной англоговорящей стране, которую большинство из нас мечтают посетить, чтобы насладиться прекрасными видами ее разнообразной природы, посетить достопримечательности и пообщаться с ее жителями.
Для того, чтобы не только получить приятные впечатления о поездке, но и улучшить знание английского языка, необходимо будет общаться с жителями Америки.
Носителям языка будет приятно, если вы покажете, что уже немного знакомы с их страной, и они захотят поделиться любопытной информацией о ней. Поэтому так необходимо знать тему на английском США и уметь рассказать что-то об этой удивительной стране.
The United States of America
One of the greatest countries of the world is The United States of America. It is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It is situated on the North American continent. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres.
The USA is washed by three oceans: the Atlantic ocean, the Arctic ocean and the Pacific ocean and it borders only on two countries — Mexico in the south and Canada in the north.
The population of the country is more than 325 million people.
There are many mountains, lakes and rivers in the USA. The main mountains are the Cordilleras and the Appalachians. The two longest rivers are called the Missouri and the Mississippi.
The climate of the country is various: in the northern part, the winter is very cold, and in the southern part, the climate is subtropical. The climate of the central part of the country is continental and the climate of Alaska is arctic.
There are fifty states and one federal District of Columbia. Washington, the capital of the USA is situated there. It stands in the eastern part of the country on the Potomac River. The main cities are located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
The largest city of the country is New York. Other large cities are Chicago, Los-Angeles, Phoenix, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Detroit and Dallas.
America is a country of highly developed agriculture and industry.
The main industrial centers of the USA are Detroit and Chicago. America is one of the leading producers of copper, oil, iron and coal. They produce cars, aircrafts, furniture, textiles, weapon and paper on the industrial enterprises of the country.
There are numerous fields in the South of the country where grain, fruit and vegetables are grown and many farms with different agricultural products.
The USA is a country with great traditions and customs.
It`s one of the most wonderful countries in the world.
Соединенные Штаты Америки
Одной из величайших стран мира — Соединенные Штаты Америки. Это четвертая по величине страна в мире (после России, Канады и Китая). Она расположена на Северо-Американском континенте. Общая площадь страны около девяти с половиной миллиона квадратных километров.
США омывается тремя океанам: Атлантическим, Северно-Ледовитым и Тихим, и граничит только с двумя странами — Мексикой на юге и Канадой на севере.
Население страны насчитывает более 325 миллиона людей.
В США много гор, озер и рек. Основные горы — Кордильеры и Аппалачи. Две самые длинные реки называются Миссури и Миссисипи.
Климат страны разнообразный. В северной части очень холодная зима, а в южной части климат субтропический. Климат центральной части страны континентальный, а на Аляске — арктический.
США состоит из 50 штатов и одного федерального округа Колумбии. Там расположен Вашингтон, столица США расположен. Главные города расположены на берегах Атлантического и Тихого океанов.
Самый большой город — Нью-Йорк. Другие крупные города — Чикаго, Лос Анджелес, Феникс, Сан-Франциско, Филадельфия, Детройт и Даллас.
Америка — страна с хорошо развитым сельским хозяйством и промышленностью.
Главные промышленные центры США — Детройт и Чикаго. Америка — один из ведущих производителей меди. нефти, железа и угля. На промышленных заводах страны производят автомобили, самолеты, мебель, текстиль, оружие и бумагу.
На юге страны расположены многочисленные поля, где выращивают зерновые культуры, фрукты и овощи, а также есть много сельскохозяйственных ферм.
США — страна с прекрасными традициями и обычаями.
Это одна из самых замечательных стран мира.
Main Article: Timeline of the United States since 1917
While the United States ironically prospered while the rest of the world was involved in the Weltkrieg, with American banks and industries supplying Britain, France, and the other Entente Powers, the immediate aftermath of the war proved far more disastrous.
th the collapse of both the British and French governments, to say nothing of the loss of both of their overseas empires, American companies were suddenly faced with the irrecoverable loss of countless millions of dollars in investments, loans, and other contracts. German dominance over global trade ensured that the United States was progressively forced out of European, African, and Asia markets. A slow decline took hold, followed by increasingly vicious domestic social and political conflict.
By the mid-1930s, the ineffective second term of President Herbert Hoover has threatened the very two-party political system that has dominated the US government since the American Civil War of the last century. Previously, the Democratic and Republican parties maintaining the support of American industry and big business, with any «extremist» groups being fragmented and disunited. Two grand coalitions have risen to challenge the traditional system, with the first being the populist and technocratic America First Union Party, with the second being the revolutionary syndicalist Socialist Party of America. Each group is mobilizing its supporters and fielding candidates to become the 32nd President of the United States come the next election in 1936.
Ever since the American Civil War of the 1860s, the United States government has operated under a two-party political system. To the right of the political spectrum are the social liberal-leaning Republicans, while the the left are the member of the Democratic Party, itself divided between market liberals and a minority of social conservatives from the southern states. Also, the social democratic Progressive Party, has recently gained significant support, gaining several congressional seats in the Pacific State and in the Northeast After the New York stock market crash of 1925 and the government’s inability to help the country recover, far-left and far-right organizations have formed in various parts of the country.
Both the Republicans and Democrats have stagnated, struggling to find the support they once had, before the depression hit. Led by their president, Herbert Hoover, the Republicans are the tantamount party of the rich. With polling hovering in the single digits and possibly the most unpopular president in history, their future seems bleak.
The Democrats, led by House Speaker John Nance Garner, are at a crossroads. The conservative elements of the party dominate, but there is a growing liberal trend among the base. If the Democrats have any hope of winning the elections alone, they must reconcile these two sides behind their leader.
The Progressive Party of America grew from the Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party. Led by Floyd Olson, they have seen considerable popularity in the Midwest, but see the most support in New England and the West Coast. There is talk of the Progressives running Olson as President for the 1936 election, under a coalition ticket with the Republicans and Democrats.
In the so-called «Red Belt» consisting of the area from Long Island & New Jersey to the Mississippi river, the Socialist Party of America has a dominating grasp on government. The majority of state governments are run by SPA members, and it is rare to see the Red Belt elect a representative or senator to Washington that is not a progressive or socialist. The mainstream current of the Socialist Party is Orthodox Syndicalism, championed by Big Bill Haywood & Jack Reed. Norman Thomas leads the almost as popular Libertarian Syndicalism movement, detracted as ‘radical socialism’ by opponents. Less popular among the Socialists is the Communist Party, which is heavily affiliated with the Socialist Party but maintains some independence. Led by Earl Browder and W. Z. Foster, the Communist Party has seen some success in destitute suburbs and inner city districts. The Socialist Party has also found success outside of the Red Belt, in industrial cities such as Seattle and rural mining regions such as in Colorado.
In the traditional Deep South region, Louisiana Senator and prominent populist Huey Long has organized the far-right, southern democrats, and anti-socialist populists into the so-called America First Union Party.
e beating heart of the AFUP, Long is by far the undisputed head of the party, supporting welfare for the poor, and he plans on implementing it by any means possible. However, there is a strong wing of National Populists, led by William Dudley Pelley, that believe Long must go further and create a theocratic ethnostate in America. Business Interests, namely industrial magnates and military leaders, lead a smaller branch of the AFUP, and protest that the party should loosen regulations on business for the good of the economy. Long’s Share Our Wealth program has earned him prominence even beyond his home state and the south, and he plans to run for President in 1936. The question is what platform within his party will he choose.
Both the Socialists and the America First Party have the capacity to rise up as paramilitary forces and popular militias around the country, and should either one not be elected they are prepared to take power by force if necessary.
The United States Army is a small part of the US military. They have a small active duty force, but they make up for that in a large number of National Guard Reservists. The US Army is one of few in the world that have dedicated armored elements, and one of even fewer that have successfully supported marine divisions.
The United States Navy is the most modern and powerful branch of the military. It is one of the few navies in the world that operates aircraft carriers and boasts a significant amount of other capital ships. The Navy maintains a presence in two oceans, the Pacific and the Atlantic, with the Pacific Fleet being the stronger of the two. While still lagging behind, the US Navy is one of the few that could come close to rivaling Germany’s Kaiserliche Marine.
The United States Army Air Corps is directly subordinate to the Army and, as such, is currently operated as a supporting force, covering soldiers on the ground from above and providing tactical reconnaissance. The Air Corps has sought to expand its operations to the US Navy and, perhaps, become its own independent branch should the need eventually arise for such a large aerial force. The Air Force is extremely powerful and fully capable of taking on the German Luftstreitkräfte in a one-to-one confrontation.
The United States has political, economic, and military authority over two countries, the small Liberia in West Africa, and the Philippines, an island nation located in the Western Pacific.
The US maintains friendly relationships with the rest of countries of the Western Hemisphere, including Cuba, Honduras, Panama, and most of Central America.
America has an antagonistic relationship with its southern syndicalist neighbor, Mexico, as well as Germany due to economic and trade reasons.
The two great sets of elements that mold the physical environment of the United States are, first, the geologic, which determines the main patterns of landforms, drainage, and mineral resources and influences soils to a lesser degree, and, second, the atmospheric, which dictates not only climate and weather but also in large part the distribution of soils, plants, and animals. Although these elements are not entirely independent of one another, each produces on a map patterns that are so profoundly different that essentially they remain two separate geographies. (Since this article covers only the conterminous United States, see also the articles Alaska and Hawaii.)
The centre of the conterminous United States is a great sprawling interior lowland, reaching from the ancient shield of central Canada on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south. To east and west this lowland rises, first gradually and then abruptly, to mountain ranges that divide it from the sea on both sides. The two mountain systems differ drastically. The Appalachian Mountains on the east are low, almost unbroken, and in the main set well back from the Atlantic. From New York to the Mexican border stretches the low Coastal Plain, which faces the ocean along a swampy, convoluted coast. The gently sloping surface of the plain extends out beneath the sea, where it forms the continental shelf, which, although submerged beneath shallow ocean water, is geologically identical to the Coastal Plain. Southward the plain grows wider, swinging westward in Georgia and Alabama to truncate the Appalachians along their southern extremity and separate the interior lowland from the Gulf.
West of the Central Lowland is the mighty Cordillera, part of a global mountain system that rings the Pacific basin. The Cordillera encompasses fully one-third of the United States, with an internal variety commensurate with its size. At its eastern margin lie the Rocky Mountains, a high, diverse, and discontinuous chain that stretches all the way from New Mexico to the Canadian border. The Cordillera’s western edge is a Pacific coastal chain of rugged mountains and inland valleys, the whole rising spectacularly from the sea without benefit of a coastal plain. Pent between the Rockies and the Pacific chain is a vast intermontane complex of basins, plateaus, and isolated ranges so large and remarkable that they merit recognition as a region separate from the Cordillera itself.
These regions—the Interior Lowlands and their upland fringes, the Appalachian Mountain system, the Atlantic Plain, the Western Cordillera, and the Western Intermontane Region—are so various that they require further division into 24 major subregions, or provinces.